Learn more about Parkinson's Disease

Download the Freezing of Gait eBook
1. Sparrow D, DeAngelis TR, Hendron K, Thomas CA, Saint-Hilaire M, Ellis T. Highly challenging balance program reduces fall rate in parkinson disease. Journal of neurologic physical therapy: JNPT. 2016;40(1):24-30.doi:10.1097/npt.0000000000000111  •  2. Understanding parkinson’s 2020; https://www.parkinson.org/understanding-parkinsons, 2020.  •  3. Klamroth S, Steib S, Devan S, Pfeifer K. Effects of exercise therapy on postural instability in parkinson disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy. 2016;40(1):3-14.doi:10.1097/npt.0000000000000117  •  4. Chen P-H, Liou D-J, Liou K-C, Liang J-L, Cheng S-J, Shaw J-S. Walking turns in parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait: The short-term effects of different cueing strategies. International Journal of Gerontology. 2016;10(2):71-75.doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijge.2014.09.004 • 5. Ginis P, Nackaerts E, Nieuwboer A, Heremans E. Cueing for people with parkinson's disease with freezing of gait: A narrative review of the state-of-the-art and novel perspectives. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2018;61(6):407-413.doi:10.1016/j.rehab.2017.08.0026. Lundy-Ekman L. Basal ganglia, cerebellum, and movement. . Neuroscience: Fundamentals for rehabilitation. . 4 ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2013.  •  7. King LA, Horak FB. Delaying mobility disability in people with parkinson disease using a sensorimotor agility exercise program. Phys Ther. 2009;89(4):384-393.doi:10.2522/ptj.20080214  •  8. Parkinson’s disease. 2020; https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20376055, 2020. •  9. Understanding the basics of parkinson’s disease. 2020; https://www.apdaparkinson.org/what-is-parkinsons/. •  10. Hoehn M, Yahr M. Parkinsonism: Onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology. 2011;77(9):874-874.doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000405146.06300.91 •  11. Geroin C, Nonnekes J, de Vries NM, et al. Does dual-task training improve spatiotemporal gait parameters in parkinson's disease? Parkinsonism & related disorders. 2018;55:86-91.doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.05.018 •  12. Vitório R, Teixeira-Arroyo C, Lirani-Silva E, et al. Effects of 6-month, multimodal exercise program on clinical and gait parameters of patients with idiopathic parkinson's disease: A pilot study. ISRN Neurol. 2011;2011:714947-714947.doi:10.5402/2011/714947 •  13. Vance RC, Healy DG, Galvin R, French HP. Dual tasking with the timed "up & go" test improves detection of risk of falls in people with parkinson disease. Phys Ther. 2015;95(1):95-102.doi:10.2522/ptj.20130386 •  14. Mak MK, Pang MY. Balance confidence and functional mobility are independently associated with falls in people with parkinson's disease. Journal of neurology. 2009;256(5):742-749.doi:10.1007/s00415-009-5007-8 •  15. Hubble RP, Silburn PA, Naughton GA, Cole MH. Trunk exercises improve balance in parkinson disease: A phase ii randomized controlled trial. Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT. 2019;43(2):96-105.doi:10.1097/npt.0000000000000258 •  16. Hass CJ, Malczak P, Nocera J, et al. Quantitative normative gait data in a large cohort of ambulatory persons with parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e42337-e42337.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0042337 •  17. Grobbelaar R, Venter R, Welman KE. Backward compared to forward over ground gait retraining have additional benefits for gait in individuals with mild to moderate parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Gait & posture. 2017;58:294-299.doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.08.019 •  18. Panyakaew P, Bhidayasiri R. The spectrum of preclinical gait disorders in early parkinson's disease: Subclinical gait abnormalities and compensatory mechanisms revealed with dual tasking. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 2013;120(12):1665-1672.doi:10.1007/s00702-013-1051-8 •  19. Rafferty MR, Prodoehl J, Robichaud JA, et al. Effects of 2 years of exercise on gait impairment in people with parkinson disease: The pret-pd randomized trial. Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT. 2017;41(1):21-30.doi:10.1097/NPT.0000000000000163 •  20. Nilsson MH, Jonasson SB, Zijlstra GAR. Predictive factors of fall-related activity avoidance in people with parkinson disease-a longitudinal study with a 3-year follow-up. Journal of neurologic physical therapy : JNPT. 2020;44(3):188-194.doi:10.1097/npt.0000000000000316 •  21. Bieńkiewicz MM, Rodger MW, Young WR, Craig CM. Time to get a move on: Overcoming bradykinetic movement in parkinson's disease with artificial sensory guidance generated from biological motion. Behavioural brain research. 2013;253:113-120.doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.07.003 •  22. Kawasaki T, Mikami K, Kamo T, et al. Motor planning error in parkinson's disease and its clinical correlates. PLoS One. 2018;13(8):e0202228.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0202228 •  23. Ebersbach G, Ebersbach A, Edler D, et al. Comparing exercise in parkinson's disease--the berlin lsvt®big study. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. 2010;25:1902-1908.doi:10.1002/mds.23212 •  24. Lord S, Baker K, Nieuwboer A, Burn D, Rochester L. Gait variability in parkinson’s disease: An indicator of non-dopaminergic contributors to gait dysfunction? J Neurol. 2011;258(4):566-572.doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5789-8 •  25. Penko AL, Streicher MC, Koop MM, Dey T, Alberts JL. Dual-task interference disrupts parkinson s gait across multiple cognitive domains. Neuroscience. 2018;379:375-382 •  26. Stuart S, Galna B, Delicato LS, Lord S, Rochester L. Direct and indirect effects of attention and visual function on gait impairment in parkinson's disease: Influence of task and turning. The European journal of neuroscience. 2017;46(1):1703-1716.doi:10.1111/ejn.13589